Italian Game - How to Play Part III


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Italian Game: How to Play Part III Video: This chess video on Italian Game will help you learn one variation of this chess opening. The variation is called Greco's Attack variation - ECO C54, with the move order of 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Nf6 5.d4 exd4 6.cxd4 Bb4+ 7.Nc3.

Greco's Attack variation of Italian Game is common at the chess beginner's level, and it must be useful for chess beginners to learn. The variation does not belong to the "Giuoco Pianissimo" (very quite game) system. Greco's Attack variation is not very quite opening variation...

It is a typical open game: Open fight for the development, center, space, and initiative... Greco's Attack variation may appear from Scotch Gambit or from the native Italian Game. Black must not play 5... Bb6 or 5... Bd5. To see the video, click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.
• If the video displays an error, try to start and play it later.

To replay on the chess board and learn Greco's Attack variation of Italian Game which was shown in the video, please find the variation in writing below:

Variation: Italian Game - Greco's Attack variation, C54:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Nf6 5.d4 exd4 6.cxd4 Bb4+ 7.Nc3
7... Ne4 8.0-0 Bxc3 9.d5 Bf6 10.Re1 Ne7 11.Re4 d6

Italian Game - How to Play Part II


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Italian Game: How to Play Part II Video: This chess video on Italian Game will help you learn one variation of this chess opening. The variation in question is called Italian Four Knights variation - ECO Code C50, with the move order of 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.d3 Nf6 5.Nc3.

The variation belongs to the system of Italian Game which is called "Giuoco Pianissimo" (very quite game). The Giuoco Pianissimo system is designed for unhurried development and positional run. It avoids or postpones the White's move d2-d4 as a direct run-in for the center at once.

Within this chess video you will learn how to play 2 lines of Italian Four Knights variation of the Italian Game opening as best moves for White and Black. You must get a feel of how to play this opening correctly... To see the video, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.
• If the video displays an error, try to start and play it later.

To replay on the chess board and learn 2 lines of Italian Four Knights variation, which was shown in the video, find the variation in writing below:

Variation: Italian Four Knights variation, Line 1, C50:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.d3 Nf6 5.Nc3 d6 6.Bg5 ...
[Line 1:] 6... h6 7.Bxf6 Qxf6 8.Nd5 Qd8 9.c3 Ne7 10.Ne3 0-0

Variation: Italian Four Knights variation, Line 2, C50:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.d3 Nf6 5.Nc3 d6 6.Bg5 ...
[Line 2:] 6... Na5 7.Bb3 Nxb3 8.axb3 Be6 9.Na4 h6 10.Bh4 Bg4 11.Nxc5 dxc5 12.h3

Lesson 33: Italian Game


[• See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[• Learn all Open Game openings: Open Games - One by One]

This lesson is designed for chess beginners to learn the Italian Game chess opening. It includes the textual part and the following 4 chess videos: Italian Game - General Information, Italian Game - How to Play Part I - Part II - Part III. More material on the Italian Game chess opening to follow.

This lesson is divided into 2 parts:
I. Italian Game: Data and Variations
II. Italian Game Videos: See the Picture and How to Play


I. Italian Game: Data and Variations

Chess Opening Type: Open Game
Move Order: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5
ECO Codes: C50, C53-C54
Note: ECO Codes C51-C52 are Evans Gambit, not Italian Game.

Italian Game: General Description

Italian Game is one of the oldest chess openings recorded. Its official name is Giuoco Piano. The opening is beautiful, useful for chess beginners to learn, and popular enough to play. It may easily transpose into Evans Gambit [1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.b4], which is a different opening.

Italian Game is an unusual one because it may run quietly or it may be wild... Black must remember that White is aimed at the Black's weak f7 square and may quickly mobilize the force to attack. Both parties must be careful in play because Giuoco Piano ("Quite Game") may be not so quite...

To answer Italian Game, White has the following 5 moves: (*) 4.c3 - appr. 40%; (*) 4.d3 - appr. 20%; (*) 4.O-O - appr. 15%; (*) 4.Nc3 - appr. 15%; (*) 4.b4 - appr. 10%. Officially, Italian Game has at least 36 variations. You can find the most common variations below...

Italian Game: Some Variations

• Greco's Attack variation, C54:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Nf6 5.d4 exd4 6.cxd4 Bb4+ 7.Nc3

• Center-holding variation, C53:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Qe7 5.d4 Bb6

• Canal variation, C50:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.d3 Nf6 5.Nc3 d6 6.Bg5

The magority of variations of Italian Game are played via the following 3 lines: 4.c3 .., the 4.d3 .., and the 4.0-0 .. Within Italian Game, there is a variation with 4.Bxf7+, but it is not being played today.


II. Italian Game Videos: See the Picture and How to Play

To understand this chess opening in general, you are recommended to replay Video 1: Italian Game - General Information. To see the Italian Game chess opening in a visible way and to learn it, click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.
• If the video displays an error, try to start and play it later.

To see Video 2: Italian Game - How to Play Part I, click this link:
See Video 2: Italian Game - How to Play Part I
Note: You can find this video at the bottom of the page open.
Note: This video will display the 6.cxd4 line of Italian Game.

To see Video 3: Italian Game - How to Play Part II, click this link:
See Video 3: Italian Game - How to Play Part II
Note: You can find this video at the bottom of the page open.
Note: This video will display Italian Four Knights variation.

To see Video 4: Italian Game - How to Play Part III, click this link:
See Video 4: Italian Game - How to Play Part III
Note: You can find this video at the bottom of the page open.
Note: This video will display Greco's Attack variation of Italian Game.

More material on Italian Game will be added later, and it must give you the essential initial knowledge on this chess opening. Please be advised that the chess opening material within this site is designed for chess beginners only.

Italian Game - How to Play Video 1


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Italian Game: How to Play Video 1: This chess video on Italian Game will help you learn only one variation of this chess opening. The variation runs within the 6.cxd4 line. It goes via the White move 4.c3, which is the most common answer to Italian Game...

The 6.cxd4 line includes the designated moves of Italian Game plus the following move order combination 4.c3 Nf6 5.d4 exd4 6.cxd4. The line may turn into some other variations of Italian Game, for example into Cracow variation, Greco's Attack variation, Greco variation, etc.

At the chess master level today, you can see the tendency of postponing the fight for the center and making Italian Game more positional in play. This can be demonstrated by chess masters' playing 4.c3 Nf6 5.d3 instead of 4.c3 Nf6 5.d4. This change avoids playing the 6.cxd4 line...

Within this video you will learn how to play a line of Italian Game. You will learn why Black must capture the White pawn on d4. You will see the picture of Cracow variation, and Greco's Attack variation... To see the video, just click the Play button below:





• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.
• If the video displays an error, try to start and play it later.

To replay on the chess board and learn the Italian Game's 6.cxd4 line, which was shown in the video, please find this variation in writing below:

Variation: Italian Game - The 6.cxd4 Line, C54:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Nf6 5.d4 exd4 6.cxd4 Bb4+ 7.Bd2 Bxd2 8.Nbxd2 d5! 9.exd5 Nd5 10.Qb3 Nce7 11.0-0 0-0
Note: White is better.

Lesson 32: Scotch Gambit


[• See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[• Learn all Open Game openings: Open Games - One by One]

This lesson is designed for chess beginners to learn the Scotch Gambit chess opening. It includes the textual part to read, the PGN file to download, and the following 4 videos to see: Video 1: Scotch Gambit - General Information, Videos 2-3-4: Scotch Gambit - How to Play Parts 1-2-3.

The Scotch Gambit opening lesson is divided into 3 parts:
I. Scotch Gambit: Data and Variations
II. Scotch Gambit Videos: See the Picture and How to Play
III. Scotch Gambit PGN File: Download to Learn Real Games


I. Scotch Gambit: Data and Variations

Opening Type: Open Game
Move Order: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4
ECO Code: C44 [ECO Code C44 is not only Scotch Gambit]

Scotch Gambit: General Description

Scotch Gambit (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4) is a brother opening of Scotch Game (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4), but it is not so common as the latter. The reason for this is simple: Within Scotch Gambit, it is not easy for White to get better opening position...

The best Black moves to answer Scotch Gambit are the following 4: (1) 4... Nf6 - appr. 45%; (2) 4... Bc5 - appr. 40%; (3) 4... Bb4+ - appr. 10%; (4) 4... Be7 - appr. 5%. Officially, Scotch Gambit has at least 11 variations: 3-4 of them are the most common...

Scotch Gambit: Some Variations

• Dubois-Reti Defence variation, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Nf6

• Scotch Gambit, a 4... Bc5 line, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Bc5

• The 5.Ng5 variation, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Bc5 5.Ng5

• The 6.bxc3 variation, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Bb4+ 5.c3 dxc3 6.bxc3

• Benima Defense variation, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Be7

• Cochrane-Shumov Defense variation, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Bc5 5.Ng5 Nh6 6.Nxf7 Nxf7 7.Bxf7+ Kxf7 8.Qh5+ g6 9.Qxc5 d5


II. Scotch Gambit Videos: See the Picture and How to Play

To understand this chess opening in general, you are recommended to see first Video 1: Scotch Gambit - General Information. To learn the Scotch Gambit opening in a visible way, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.
• If the video displays an error, try to start and play it later.

You have seen the above Video 1 - You have learn the general picture on Scotch Gambit... And now you are recommended to see Video 2 and Video 3: Both are located on separate pages, find their links below. Video 2 and Video 3 will display how to play some variations of Scotch Gambit.

To see Video 2: Scotch Gambit - How to Play Part 1, click this link:
See Video 2: Scotch Gambit - How to Play Part 1
Note: You can find this video at the bottom of the page open.
Note: This video will display 2 variations of Scotch Gambit.

To see Video 3: Scotch Gambit - How to Play Part 2, click this link:
See Video 3: Scotch Gambit - How to Play Part 2
Note: This video will display other 2 variations of Scotch Gambit.

To see Video 4: Scotch Gambit - How to Play Part 3, click this link:
See Video 4: Scotch Gambit - How to Play Part 3
Note: This video will display Cochrane-Shumov Defense variation of Scotch Gambit.


III. Scotch Gambit PGN File: Download to Learn Real Games

Find below the Scotch-Gambit.pgn file to download and see how it works in real games at the chess master level. To read the file, you will need a PGN Viewer Program. See Lesson 16, which explains you how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer Program.

The Scotch-Gambit.pgn file includes:
• The description of Scotch Gambit.
• Some variations of this chess opening.
• 12 Scotch Gambit chess games played by chess masters in 2009.

To download the Scotch Gambit PGN File, click the following link:

Scotch-Gambit.pgn File (9 KB)
Note 1. The above file is to be downloaded from Google Drive. First click the above link to open, then click the download icon to download.
Note 2. To read the above PGN File and see the chess games inside it, you will need a PGN Viewer software. See Lesson 16, which explains how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer.

Scotch Gambit - How to Play Video 3


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Scotch Gambit: How to Play Video 3: This chess video on Scotch Gambit will help you learn only one variation of this chess opening. The variation runs within the 4... Bc5 line of Scotch Gambit, and its name is Cochrane-Shumov Defense variation. Read more on it below...

Cochrane-Shumov Defense variation includes 9 designated moves. At first, it looks promising for White: White moves 5.Ng5 and his bishop and knight attack the Black's f7 square. White sacrifices a minor piece for one Black pawn, and then makes the Queen fork to take the sacrificed back...

Black is deprived of the castling move... However, the Black position is better... After this short introduction, now you are invited to learn Cochrane-Shumov Defense variation of Scotch Gambit in a visible way. To see the video, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.
• If the video displays an error, try to start and play it later.

To replay on the chess board and learn Cochrane-Shumov Defense variation, which was shown in the video, please find this variation in writing below:

Variation: Scotch Gambit - Cochrane-Shumov Defence variation, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Bc5 5.Ng5 Nh6 6.Nxf7 Nxf7 7.Bxf7+ Kxf7 8.Qh5+ g6 9.Qxc5 d5 10.0-0 dxe4 11.c3 Re8 12.Bf4 Bf5
Note: Not recommended for White: If correct, Black is always better.

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Scotch Gambit - How to Play Video 2


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Scotch Gambit: How to Play Video 2: This chess video on Scotch Gambit will help you learn the next 2 variations: The 5.Ng5 variation (within the 4... Bc5 line) and The 6.bxc3 variation (within the 4... Bb4+ line). The following is more information to remind you...

The designated moves for Scotch Gambit are 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4, ECO C44. Scotch Gambit is a brother opening of Scotch Game. Note: The second brother opening of Scotch Game is Goering Gambit with 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.c3, ECO C44 - not to be discussed.)

To answer Scotch Gambit, Black has 1 of the following 4 moves: (1) 4... Nf6 - appr. 45%; (2) 4... Bc5 - appr. 40%; (3) 4... Bb4+ - appr. 10%; (4) 4... Be7 - appr. 5%. Officially, Scotch Gambit has at least 11 variations: 3-4 of them are the most common...

And now you are ready to see the video. Within the video, please pay attention to the recommendation not to play for White The 5.Ng5 variation (within the 4... Bc5 line)... To see the Scotch Gambit: How to Play Video [2], just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.
• If the video displays an error, try to start and play it later.

To replay on the chess board and learn the Scotch Gambit variations which were shown in the video as Variations 1 and 2, please find them in writing below:

Variation 1: Scotch Gambit - The 5.Ng5 variation, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Bc5 5.Ng5 Nh6! 6.c3 0-0 7.0-0 d6 8.h3 a6 9.cxd4 Nxd4 10.a3 b5 11.Ba2 c6
Note: Not recommended for White. If correct, Black is always better.

Variation 2: Scotch Gambit - The 6.bxc3 variation, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Bb4+ 5.c3 dxc3 6.bxc3 Ba5 7.0-0 d6 8.Qb3 Qf6 9.Bg5 Qg6
Note: Black can get equal position. But this variation is little risky for Black.

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Scotch Gambit - How to Play Video 1


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Scotch Gambit: How to Play Video [1]: This chess video on Scotch Gambit will help you learn its 2 main variations: Dubois-Reti Defense variation and Scotch Gambit, a 4... Bc5 line. Before seeing the video, please read the following short information on this opening.

Scotch Gambit is a brother opening of Scotch Game, but it is not so common. The reason for this is simple: Within Scotch Gambit, it is not easy for White to get better position... The designated moves order for Scotch Gambit is 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4. ECO Code C44.

To answer Scotch Gambit, Black has 1 of the following 4 moves: (1) 4... Nf6 - appr. 45%; (2) 4... Bc5 - appr. 40%; (3) 4... Bb4+ - appr. 10%; (4) 4... Be7 - appr. 5%. Officially, Scotch Gambit has at least 11 variations: 3-4 of them are the most common...

And now you are ready to see the video. Within the video, pay special attention to the last section how not to play for Black (do not play 5... dxc3 in Variation 2)... To see the Scotch Gambit: How to Play Video [1], just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.
• If the video displays an error, try to start and play it later.

To replay on the chess board and learn the Scotch Gambit variations which were shown in the video, please find them in writing below:

Variation 1: Scotch Gambit - Dubois-Reti Defense variation, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Nf6 5.e5 d5 6.Bb5 Ne4 7.Nxd4 Bd7 8.Bxc6 bxc6 9.O-O Bc5 10.f3 Ng5 11.Be3 0-0

Variation 2: Scotch Gambit - Scotch Gambit, a 4... Bc5 line, C44:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 Bc5 5.c3 Nf6 6.cxd4 Bb4+ 7.Nc3 Nxe4 8.O-O Bxc3 9.d5 Bf6 10.Re1 Ne7 11.Rxe4 d6

Note: In Variation 2, Scotch Gambit, a 4... Bc5 line, remember not to play 5... dxc3 for Black because White will conduct a short combination... and after this combination White will be better. You can see this in the video within its last section. Thank you!

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Lesson 31: Scotch Game


[*See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[**Learn all Open Game openings: Open Games - One by One]

This lesson is designed for chess beginners to learn the Scotch Game chess opening. The lesson holds 2 chess videos (Video 1: Scotch Game - General Information, Video 2: Scotch Game - How to Play), the textual part on Scoth Game, and the PGN file to learn how it works in real.

By composition, the lesson is divided into 3 parts:

I. Scotch Game: Data and Variations
II. Scotch Game Videos: See a Picture and How to Play
III. Scotch Game PGN File: Download and Learn Real Games


I. Scotch Game: Data and Variations

Opening Type: Open Game
Move Order: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4
ECO Code: C45
Note: ECO Code C45 is only Scotch Game.

Scotch Game: General Description

Scotch Game got its name from a correspondence match in 1824 between Edinburgh (Scotland) and London. It is a good sample of an Open Game. Being popular today, the opening was played by Garry Kasparov who considered it as a nice replacement for the multivariation Ruy Lopes.

At the very beginning, White occupies the center by placing his pawn on e4 and knight on d4, which is a challenge for Black to compensate the initial opening's position and break it through at the game opening's phase... The best Black moves to answer Scotch Game are the following 4:

(1) 4... Bc5 (common appr. for 45%), (2) 4... Nf6 (common appr. for 40%), (3) 4... Nxd4 (common appr. for 10%), and (4) 4... Qh4 (common appr. for 5%). Officially, Scotch Game has 21 variations. As today, the most common 4-6 variations are being played for appr. 90% of all the games on Scotch Game.

Scotch Game: Some Variations

• The 4... Bc5 variation, C45:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Bc5

• Meitner variation, C45:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Bc5 5.Be3 Qf6 6.c3 Nge7 7.Nc2

• Schmidt variation, C45:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6

• Ghulam Kassim variation, C45:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Nxd4 5.Qxd4 d6 6.Bd3

• Horwitz Attack variation, C45:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Qh4 5.Nb5


II. Scotch Game Videos: See a Picture and How to Play

To understand this chess opening in general, you are recommended to see Video 1: Scotch Game - General Information. To learn the Scotch Game opening in a visible way, click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

To see Video 2: Scotch Game - How to Play, click this link:
See Video 2: Scotch Game - How to Play
Note: You can find Video 2 at the bottom of the page open.


III. Scotch Game PGN File: Download and Learn Real Games

Find below the Scotch-Game.pgn file to download and learn how this chess opening works in real and see its latest tendencies. To read the file, you will need a PGN Viewer Program. See Lesson 16, which explains you how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer Program.

Within the Scotch-Game.pgn file, you will find:

• Description, main lines, some variations, and how to play 3 of them.
• 20 chess games played on Scotch Game by chess masters in 2008-2009.
• The computer program's analysis on each game's opening phase, and more...

To see how Scotch Game works in real at the chess master level, click the following link:

Download the Scotch-Game.pgn File (12 KB)
Note 1. The above file is to be downloaded from Google Drive. First click the above link to open, then click the download icon to download.
Note 2. To read the above PGN File and see the chess games inside it, you will need a PGN Viewer software. See Lesson 16, which explains how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer.


On Chess-openings-for-beginners.blogspot.com, you can see more openings:

[*.See Danish Gambit]
[*.See Petroff Defense]
[*.See Philidor Defense]

Scotch Game - How to Play Video


[• See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

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Scotch Game How to Play - Video: This chess video on Scotch Game will help you learn its 3 main variations. This opening video is also designed to help you develop feel of correctly playing Scotch Game and learn the opening's ideas, developing squares, and typical positions.

Before you play the video, please read the following information to better understand a general picture on Scotch Game... Today this chess opening is being popular. It was played by Garry Kasparov who considered Scotch Game as a nice alternative to multivariation Ruy Lopes.

Scotch Game (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4, C45) and Scotch Gambit (to be discussed later: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Bc4 (or 4.c3), C44) are two parts of the Scotch Opening (1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4, C44-45). Scotch Game is an excited one to play for White and Black.

To answer Scotch Game, Black has 1 of the next 4 moves: (1) 4... Bc5 - appr. 45% in 2009; (2) 4... Nc6 - appr. 40%; (3) 4... Nxd4 - appr. 10%; (4) 4... Qh4 - appr. 5%. Officially, Scotch Game has 21 variations: 4 - 6 of them are the most commonly played. The opening is useful for beginners...

The video will display how to correctly play the following 3 main variations of Scotch Game: Meitner variation, Schmidt variation, and Horwitz Attack variation. To see the Scotch Game How to Play video, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.
• If the video displays an error, try to start and play it later.

To replay on the chess board and learn the Scotch Game variations which were shown in the above video, see them in writing below:

Variation 1: Scotch Game - Meitner variation, C45
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Bc5 5.Be3 Qf6 6.c3 Nge7 7.Nc2 d6 8.Bxc5 dxc5 9.Ne3 Qg6 10.Nd2 0-0

Variation 2: Scotch Game - Schmidt variation, C45
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 Bb4 6.Nc6 bxc6 7.Bd3 d5 8.exd5 cxd5 9.0-0 0-0 10.Bg5 Be6 11.Qf3 Be7

Variation 3: Scotch Game - Horwitz Attack variation, C45
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Qh4 5.Nb5 Bb4+ 6.Bd2 Qxe4+ 7.Be2 Kd8 8.0-0 Nf6 9.N1c3 Qh4 10.g3 Qh3 11.Bf3

Ponziani Opening - How to Play Video


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Video - Ponziani Opening How to Play: This chess video on Ponziani Opening will help you learn 3 main variations of this chess opening. The video is also designed to help you develop feel of correctly playing Ponziani Opening and learn ideas, developing squares, etc.

Before you play the video, please read the following information to better understand a general picture on playing Ponziani Opening... Today this chess opening has been forgotten. It is difficult even to find sample games on Pozniani Opening at the chess master level. But...

Pozniani Opening must be good for White. If you play correctly for White, you will have at least an equal position. As with any opening, the main problem is to have idea how to play it. And now you are proposed to find the video below and see it. Maybe you will like this opening...

The video will display how to correctly play 3 main variations of Pozniani Opening: Leonhardt variation, Jaenisch Counterattack variation, and Ponziani Countergambit variation. To see the Ponziani Opening How to Play video, click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

To replay on the chess board and learn the Ponziani Opening variations which were shown in the above video, see them in writing below:

Variation 1: Ponziani Opening - Leonhardt variation, C44
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.c3 d5 4.Qa4 Nf6 5.Nxe5 Bd6 6.Nxc6 bxc6 7.d3! 0-0 8.Be2 Re8 9.Bg5 h6 10.Bxf6 Qxf6 11.Nd2

Variation 2: Ponziani Opening - Jaenisch Counterattack variation, C44
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.c3 Nf6 4.d4 Nxe4 5.d5 Nb8 6.Nxe5 Bc5 7.Qg4 0-0 8.Qxe4 d6 9.Bd3 f5 10.Qc4 b5! 11.Qxb5 Qe7 12.0-0 dxe5 13.Bg5!

Variation 3: Ponziani Opening - Ponziani Countergambit variation, C44
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.c3 f5 4.d4 fxe4 5.Nxe5 Qf6 6.Ng4 Qg6 7.d5! Nd8 8.Be2 Bc5 9.0-0 Nf7


This is a support page of the Ponziani Opening - Main Page.
To return Home, use the link at the top of this page.

Lesson 30: Ponziani Opening


[• See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[• Get: PDF eBook on Ponziani Opening on This Page]

This chess lesson is designed for chess beginners to learn Ponziani Opening, an oldest chess opening in the history of chess. The lesson holds 2 chess videos: Video 1 Ponziani Opening - General Information and Video 2 Ponziani Opening - How to Play (see them below).

Note: The .PGN file on this chess opening will not be developed. Instead, you can find and download a special free .PDF eBook "Pozniani Opening: How to Win This Chess Opening." Small in size, the eBook will provide you with the detailed information on Ponziani Opening.

By composition, the lesson is divided into 2 parts:
I. Ponziani Opening: Data and Variations
II. Ponziani Opening Videos: See a Picture and How to Play
III. Ponziani Opening: Download PDF eBook to Learn


I. Ponziani Opening: Data and Variations

Opening Type: Open Game
Move Order: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.c3
ECO Code: C44

Note: C44 is not only Ponziani Opening.
Note: C44 is also Tayler Opening, Inverted Hanham, and some others.
Note: Looking for Ponziani Opening games by C44, please check the move order.

Ponziani Opening: General Description

Ponziani Opening is an oldest opening in the history of chess. It is named after Domenico Lorenzo Ponziani (1719 – 1796) who was an Italian law professor, priest, chess player, chess writer and composer. The opening is also called English Knight's Game or Staunton's Opening.

The main features of Ponziani Opening follows. By moving 3.c3, White goes for the center control. At the same time, the pawn on c3 slightly delays the White development of the minor pieces at the Queen's side. Because of this, today Ponziani Opening is being played rarely at all levels of chess.

Black may get slightly better position if he knows how to play it correctly. For White, Pozniani Opening may be effectively used from time to time against an unprepared opponent. To some extend, the opening is similar to Ruy Lopes (3.Bb5)and Italian Game (3.Bc4), which are much more popular today...

As a respond to Pozniani Opening, Black is to answer the following 1 of 5: (1) 3... d5 - one of the best moves; (2) 3... Nf6 - one of the best moves; (3) 3... f5 - old one (original Ponziani's move); (4) 3... Nge7; (5) 3... Be7. Officially, there are 11 variations; the most common 4-6.

Main Variations

Leonhardt variation, C44
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.c3 d5 4.Qa4 Nf6

Jaenisch Counterattack variation, C44
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.c3 Nf6

Ponziani Countergambit variation, C44
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.c3 f5


II. Ponziani Opening Videos: See a Picture and How to Play

To better understand this chess opening, you are recommended to see Video 1: Ponziani Opening - General Information. To learn Ponziani Opening in a visible way, click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

To see Video 2: Ponziani Opening - How to Play, click the next link:
Ponziani Opening Play Video
Note: You can find Video 2 at the bottom of the page open.


III. Ponziani Opening: Download PDF eBook to Learn

To learn Ponziani Opening, you can download the following PDF ebook:

Ponziani Opening: How to Win This Chess Opening (102 KB)
Note. The above PDF file is to be downloaded from Google Drive. First click the above link to open, then click the download icon to download.

You've learned Ponziani Opening, and Scotch Game is the next chess opening to learn...

Sister Chess Blog | Chess Video Blog

Lesson 29: Petroff Defense


[• See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[• Learn all Open Game openings: Open Games - One by One]

This chess lesson is designed for chess beginners to learn the Petroff Defense chess opening. The lesson holds 3 chess videos: Video 1 Petroff Defense - General Information, Video 2 Petroff Defense - How to Play, and Video 3 Petroff Defense Trap.

Video 1 is located on this page; Videos 2-3 on separated pages. Find the links to Videos 2-3 on this page below. The lesson is also the textual description to read and the .PGN file to learn chess games played on Petroff Defense in the year 2009 at the chess master level.

By composition, the lesson is divided into 3 parts:
I. Petroff Defense: Data and Variations
II. Petroff Defense Videos: See a Picture, How to Play, and 1 Trap
III. Petroff Defense PGN File: Download and Learn Real Games


I. Petroff Defense: Data and Variations

Opening Type: Open Game
Move Order: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6
ECO Codes: C42 - C43

Petroff Defense: General Description

This chess opening is named after the first recognized Russian chess master Alexander Petroff (Petrov). Alexander Petroff (1794-1867) is also a famous world chess composer. In Russia, this opening is called Russian Game. It is also spelled as Petrov, Petrov's, Petroff, or Petroff's Defense.

The Petroff Defense opening is recognizable, respected, and a popular Open Game at the chess master level. It is being played at the top level chess. The main feature of Petroff Defense follows: Instead of defending the e5 pawn, Black counter-attacks at the very beginning to take the initiative.

Petroff Defense may transpose into Four Knights Game, Bishop's Opening, and into some others. For chess beginners, it is important to learn 1 trap which is possible at the very beginning of this opening (see video 2). The best White moves to answer Petroff Defense are the following 3:

(1) 3.Nxe5 (common today appr. for 60%), (2) 3.d4 (common today appr. for 20%), and (3) 3.Nc3 (common today appr. for 15%). Officially, Petroff Defense has 28 variations. As today, the most common 6-8 variations are being played for appr. 90% of all games on Petroff Defense.


II. Petroff Defense Videos: See a Picture, How to Play, and 1 Trap

To see and understand a general picture on this chess opening, you are recommended to see Video 1: Petroff Defense - General Information. To learn the Petroff Defense chess opening in a visible way, click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

To see Video 2: Petroff Defense - How to Play, click this link:
See Video 2: Petroff Defense - How to Play
Note: You can find Video 2 at the bottom of the page open.

To see Video 3: Petroff Defense Trap, click this link:
See Video 3: Petroff Defense Trap
Note: You can find Video 3 at the bottom of the page open.


III. Petroff Defense PGN File: Download and Learn Real Games

Find below the Petroff-Defense.pgn file to download and see how it works in real games at the chess master level. To read the file, you will need a PGN Viewer Program. See Lesson 16, which explains you how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer Program.

The Petroff-Defense.pgn file was compiled in the following way:

• The file includes 3 main variations and displays how to correctly play them.
• Also, the file includes 16 chess games played on Petroff Defense in 2009.
• The chess games were selected randomly, all FIDE players rated 2389-2751.

• All the names of the chess players were removed.
• The game results and tournament names were removed as well.
• The games are shown from the beginning to the end of the opening phase.

• At this point, the positions were analyzed by a computer program.
• You will see the result of the program's analysis, like this...
• "If White finds a best line ..., White will be better at 0.24 pawns."

• The computer program's analysis will help you:
• To analyze who was better at playing the opening.
• To understand how to correctly enter the middle game...

To see how Petroff Defense works in real games at the chess master level, click the following link:

Download the Petroff-Defense.pgn File (9 KB)
Note 1. The above file is to be downloaded from Google Drive. First click the above link to open, then click the download icon to download.
Note 2. To read the above PGN File and see the chess games inside it, you will need a PGN Viewer software. See Lesson 16, which explains how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer.

You've learned Petroff Defense, and Ponziani Opening is the next chess opening to learn...

Video: Petroff Defense - How to Play Variations


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[• Return: Return to the Main Page of Petroff Defense]

Video - Petroff Defense How to Play Variations: This chess opening video on Petroff Defense will help you learn 3 main variations of this opening. This video is also designed to help you develop feel of correctly playing Petroff Defense and learn ideas, developing squares, etc.

Before you play the video, please read the following information to better understand a general picture on playing Petroff Defense... Officially, there are 28 variations of Petroff Defense. But, there are only 6 main variations that cover appr. 95% of all the games played on Petroff Defense.

The video will display 3 (of 6) main variations that cover appr.60% of all the games played on Petroff Defense - The calculations were made based on the recent games played on Petroff Defense at the chess master level. To see the Petroff Defense How to Play video, click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

To replay on the chess board and learn the Petroff Defense variations which were shown in the above video, see them in writing below:

Main Variation 1: Petroff Defense - Cozio (Lasker) Attack Variation, C42
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Nxe5 d6 4.Nf3 Nxe4 5.Qe2 Qe7 6.d3 Nf6 7.Bg5 Qxe2+ 8.Bxe2 Be7 9.Nc3 c6 10.O-O-O Na6
Note: C42 is 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 {3.Any White move but not d4

Main Variation 2: Philidor Defense - Classical Attack Variation, C42
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Nxe5 d6 4.Nf3 Nxe4 5.d4 d5 6.Bd3 Bd6 7.c4
Note: C42 is 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 {3.Any White move but not d4

Main Variation 3: Petroff Defense - Modern(Steinitz) Attack Variation, C43
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.d4 Nxe4 4.Bd3 d5 5.Nxe5 Be7 6.0-0 0-0 7.c4 Nf6
Note: C43 is 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.d4 {3... Any Black move

Be sure to see also Video: Petroff Defense - Learn This Trap. The video will show you the main trap of Petroff Defense which is very common for chess beginners. After this, you must be safe to play Petroff Defense. The Petroff Defense - Learn This Trap video is located on this page:

The Petroff Defense Trap Video

You can also access the above video from the Main Page of Petroff Defense.

Video: Petroff Defense Trap


[• See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[• Return: Return to the Main Page of Petroff Defense]

Video: Petroff Defense Trap: Find this chess video on the chess opening trap below. The video will show you the Petroff Defense opening trap, which is possible at the very beginning of the game... The Petroff is reliable. It is safe to play for Black. The Petroff Defense opening is also popular at the top-level chess. From the very beginning, Black attempts to take the initiative. Within the Petroff Defense opening, Black may get good opening position to explore...

But there is one common trap that you must know about... The following is more information on this trap. The designated moves of Petroff Defense have just been made... 2 knights and 2 pawns at the center under opposition... White is taking the pawn and... The first desire of the Black player is to take the White pawn in respond. Be aware of this mistake... There is only one best move for Black to answer. For sure, Black may safely take the White pawn but little later.

Besides, the Black blunder may follow the mistake. If the blunder move is made, it will be too late for Black... The video will show you how to use and how to avoid the trap... The Petroff Defense: Learn This Trap video is ready to show up. You will learn the mistake, the blunder, the correct line of play, and why it is not recommended to make this mistake within Petroff Defense... To see and learn this video on chess opening traps, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

You have seen the video about the Petroff Defense Trap. After this, you are recommended to return back to the Main Page of Petroff Defense (see the link at the top of this page).

Lesson 28: Philidor Defense


[• See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[• Learn all Open Game openings: Open Games - One by One]

This chess opening lesson is designed for beginners to learn Philidor Defense. The lesson holds 4 chess videos (Video 1: Philidor Defense - General Information | Video 2: Philidor Defense - How to Play | Video 3: Philidor Defense - Trap 1 | Video 4: Philidor Defense - Trap 2)...

Video 1 is located on this page; Videos 2-3-4 on separated pages. Find the links to Videos 2-3-4 on this page below... The lesson is also the textual part to read and the .PGN file to download and learn the real chess games, which were played on Philidor Defense in 2009 by chess masters.

By composition, this chess opening lesson is divided into 3 parts:
I. Philidor Defense: Data and Variations
II. Philidor Defense Videos: See a Picture, How to Play, and 2 Traps
III. Philidor Defense PGN File: Download and Learn Real Games


I. Philidor Defense: Data and Variations

Opening Type: Open Game
Move Order: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6
ECO Code: C41 - ECO Code C41 is only Philidor Defense.

Philidor Defense: Description

This chess opening is named after the famous 18th century player Francois-Andre Philidor. The main 2 features of Philidor Defense are the following: 1. Black creates strong defense, but his chess pieces are limited in movement. 2. If you want to play Philidor Defense for Black, be sure to learn 2 traps.

The best White moves to answer Philidor Defense are 3.d4 (for 60-70%) or 3.Bc4 (for 10-15%). As an answer for the White move 3.d4, it is not recommended for Black to play 3... Bg4? or 3... f5?!. At the chess master level, it is popular to use the alternative move order for Philidor Defense.


II. Philidor Defense Videos: See a Picture, How to Play, and 2 Traps

Now, you are recommended to see Video 1: Philidor Defense - General Information. To see and learn the Philidor Defense chess opening in a visible way, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

See also Video 2: Philidor Defense - How to Play clicking the next link:

See Video 2: Philidor Defense - How to Play
Note: You can find Video 2 at the bottom of the page open.

See also Video 3: Philidor Defense - Trap 1 by clicking the next link:

See Video 3: Philidor Defense - Trap 1
Note: You can find Video 3 at the bottom of the page open.

See also Video 4: Philidor Defense - Trap 2 by clicking the next link:

See Video 4: Philidor Defense - Trap 2
Note: You can find Video 4 at the bottom of the page open.


III. Philidor Defense PGN File: Download and Learn Real Games

Find below the Philidor-Defense.pgn file to download and see how this opening works in real games at the chess master level. To read the file, you will need a PGN Viewer Program. See Lesson 16, which explains you how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer Program. Before downloading the file, please read in which way it was compiled and what you will see within it.

The Philidor-Defense.pgn file was created in the following way:

• The file includes main variations and displays how to correctly play 3 variations.
• In addition, the file includes 24 chess games played on Philidor Defense in the year 2009.
• The chess games were selected randomly, all FIDE players rated 2027-2696.

• All the names of the chess players were removed, their ELO ratings kept intact.
• The game results and tournament names were removed as well.
• The chess games are shown from the game beginning to the middle game stage only.

• At this point, the positions were analyzed by a computer program.
• You will see the result of the program's analysis, like this...
• "If White finds a best line ..., Black will be slightly better at 0.09 pawns."

• The computer program's analysis will help you:
• To analyze who was better at playing Philidor Defense.
• To understand how to correctly continue the middle game...

To see how Philidor Defense works at the chess master level, click the following link:

Download the Philidor-Defense.pgn File (15 KB)
Note 1. The above file is to be downloaded from Google Drive. First click the above link to open, then click the download icon to download.
Note 2. To read the above PGN File and see the chess games inside it, you will need a PGN Viewer software. See Lesson 16, which explains how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer.

You've learned Philidor Defense, and Petroff Defense is the next chess opening to learn...

Philidor Defense - How to Play


[• See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[• Return: Return to the Main Page of Philidor Defense]

Philidor Defense - How to Play is the chess video which represents a general picture on how to play the Philidor Defense chess opening. You can find this chess opening video below. The following is what it is all about...

The Philidor Defense - How to Play video will show you how to play 2 variations of Philidor Defense. It will also give a Short If-Then Reference on playing this chess opening. Please be advised that it is only the short reference...

The video will display Exchange Variation and Improved Hanham Variation. It will also show the main lines and main move-answers. To see the Philidor Defense - How to Play video, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

To replay on the chess board and learn the Philidor Defense variations which were shown in the above video, see them in writing below:

Variation 1: Philidor Defense - Exchange Variation
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 Be7 6.Bf4 O-O 7.Qd2 a6 8.0-0-0

Variation 2: Philidor Defense - Improved Hanham Variation
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 Nf6 4.Nc3 Nbd7 5.Bc4 Be7 6.O-O O-O 7.Qe2 c6 8.a4 Qc7

The below is how to play Philidor Defense in general. For Black, it is a strong defense but limited in movement. There are 2 main lines: 3.d4 (main) and 3.Bc4. The 3.d4 line is common for 60-70%... Be sure to learn 2 traps within the Philidor Defense opening.

As an answer for the White move 3.d4, it is not recommended for Black to play 3... Bg4? or 3... f5?!. Nowadays, at the chess master level it is popular to use an alternative move order to begin Philidor Defense. The alternative move order may be this one: 1.e4 d6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nc3 e5 4.Nf3...

You have seen the 2nd video on Philidor Defense. Now you are recommended to return to the Main Page of Philidor Defense to continue (see the link at the top of this page).

Philidor Defense: Trap 2 - Learn


[• See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[• Return: Return to the Main Page of Philidor Defense]

Philidor Defense: Trap 2 - Learn. This chess video will show you Trap 2, which begins from the Philidor Defense opening. Please remember: If you want to play Philidor Defense for Black, be sure to have learned the Philidor Defense traps. Read more on Trap 2 next...

The game starts as Philidor Defense. Then it transposes into another chess opening... Inside the video, pay close attention to and be sure to learn this typical position. If Black makes a looked-to-be "strong move", he will be trapped. The combination is called the Legal's Mate...

Learn Trap 2 to know how to use and avoid the trap... The best White answer for Philidor Defense is 3.d4... Please be aware of the 3.Bc4 line (second line) in Philidor Defense. To see and learn this video Philidor Defense: Trap 2 - Learn, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

You have seen the 4th video on Philidor Defense. Now you are recommended to return to the Main Page of Philidor Defense to continue (see the link at the top of this page).

Philidor Defense: Trap 1 - Learn


[• See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[• Return: Return to the Main Page of Philidor Defense]

Philidor Defense: Trap 1 - Learn. This chess video will show you Trap 1 within the Philidor Defense chess opening. Please remember: If you want to play Philidor Defense for Black, be sure to have learned the Philidor Defense traps. New video on Philidor Defense Trap 2 is to be published soon.

Learn Trap 1 to know how to use and avoid the trap... The best White answer for Philidor Defense is 3.d4... Please be aware of the 3.Bc4 line (second line) in Philidor Defense. To see and learn this video Philidor Defense: Trap 1 - Learn, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

You have seen the 3rd video on Philidor Defense. Now you are recommended to return to the Main Page of Philidor Defense to continue (see the link at the top of this page).

Vienna Game - Learn This Trap Video 3


[*See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[>>Return to: The Main Page of Viena Game]

Vienna Game - Learn This Trap (continued). Video 3 will show you the Vienna Game's trap as possible White answer for the Black attempt to conduct the nice positional combination on d5. This trap is possible only because of the Black King Blunder.

Learn this trap to know how to avoid it. After this check on f7 by a White Bishop, the Black King must Return Back to avoid the trap. If so, then the opening position will be equal. If not... See Video 3: Vienna Game - Learn This Trap by clicking the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

You have seen the 3rd video on Viena Game. Now you are recommended to return to the Main Page of Viena Game to continue (see the link at the top of this page).

Lesson 27: Vienna Game


[*See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[**Learn all Open Game openings: Open Games - One by One]

This lesson is designed for chess beginners to learn Vienna Game. It is 3 chess videos (Video 1: Vienna Game - General Information | Video 2: Vienna Game - How to Play | Video 3: Vienna Game - Learn This Trap). Video 1 on Vienna Game is located on this page.

Video 2 and Video 3 are on separated pages, and they will open in the same window of your browser. The Vienna Game lesson is also the textual part to read and the .PGN file to download and learn the real chess games, which were played by chess masters on Vienna Game.

By composition, the lesson is divided into 3 parts:
Part I. Vienna Game: Data and Variations
Part II. Vienna Game Videos: See a Picture, How to Play, and 1 Trap
Part III. Vienna Game PGN File: Download and Learn Real Games


I. Vienna Game: Data and Variations

Vienna Game Opening Type: Open Game
Vienna Game Move Order: 1.e4 e5 2.Nc3
ECO Codes: C25-C29

The Vienna Game chess opening was invented in the 19th century by a group of Vienna's chess players lead by chess master Carl Hamppe. Vienna Game was born as "delayed King's Gambit" with White playing 3.f4. This variation is still being played today, together with some other variations.

Within Vienna game, Black can get good position. To answer Vienna Game, the best 3 moves for Black are: *2... Nf6, *2... Nc6, and *2... Bc5. Black often uses the strong pawn move on d5, which works in many positions of this opening. However, in rare situations White might trap on Black's d5.

The Vienna Game trap on d5 is shown in Video 3: Vienna Game - Learn This Trap... Vienna Game may easily transpose into King's Gambit Declined, Four Knights Game, and some other openings. In general, Vienna Game is very beautiful in play. Also, it can be met at the top-level chess.


II. Vienna Game Videos: See a Picture, How to Play, and 1 Trap

Now, you are recommended to see Video 1: Vienna Game - General Information. To learn the Vienna Game chess opening in a visual way, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

See also Video 2: Vienna Game - How to Play by clicking the next link:

See Video 2: Vienna Game - How to Play Some Variations
Note: You can find Video 2 at the bottom of the page open.

See also Video 3: Vienna Game - Learn This Trap by clicking the next link:

See Video 3: Vienna Game - Learn This Trap
Note: You can find Video 3 at the bottom of the page open.


III. Vienna Game PGN File: Download and Learn Real Games

Find below the Vienna-Game.pgn file to download and see how Vienna Game works in real games at the chess master level. To read the file, you will need a PGN Viewer Program. See Lesson 16, which explains you how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer Program - You need this chess program to open and replay all chess games within a PGN file. Before downloading the Vienna-Game.pgn file, please read how it was compiled and what you will see within it.

The Vienna-Game.pgn file was specially created in the following way:

• The file includes main variations and displays how to correctly play two of them.
• In addition, the file includes 24 chess games played on Vienna Game in the year 2009.
• The chess games were selected randomly, all FIDE players rated 2051-2725.

• All the names of the chess players and their ratings were removed.
• The game results and tournament names were removed as well.
• The chess games are shown from the game beginning to the middle game beginning only.

• At this point, the positions were analyzed by a computer program.
• You will see the result of the program's analysis, like this...
• "If White finds a best line ..., Black will be still better at 0.52 pawns."

• The computer program's analysis will help you:
• To analyze who was better at playing Vienna Game.
• To understand how to correctly continue the middle game...

To see how Vienna Game works in real games at chess master level, click the following link:

Download the Vienna-Game.pgn File (14 KB)
Note. The above file is to be downloaded from Google Drive. First click the above link to open, then click the download icon to download.

You've learned Vienna Game, and Philidor Defense is the next chess opening to learn...

Vienna Game - How to Play Video 2


[*See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[>>Return to: The Main Page of Vienna Game]

Vienna Game - How to Play Some Variations (continued). Video 2 will show how to play some variations of Vienna Game and the Black's d5 positional combination, which is a typical one for the Vienna Game opening.

The video will also display Short If-Then Reference on playing Vienna Game best. It is only short reference... To see Video 2: Vienna Game - How to Play Some Variations, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video hasn't shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

To replay on the chess board and learn the Vienna Game chess opening variations, which were shown in the above video, see them in writing below:

Variation 1: Vienna Game - Main Line (Vienna Gambit)
1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.Nf3 Be7 6.d4 0-0 7.Bd3 f5 8.exf6 Bxf6 9.0-0 Nc6

Variation 2: Vienna Game - The 2... Nc6 Variation
1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.d3 Bb4 5.Bg5 h6 6.Bxf6 Bxc3+ 7.bxc3 Qxf6 8.Ne2 d6 9.d4 0-0 10.0-0

You have seen the 2nd video on Viena Game. Now you are recommended to return to the Main Page of Viena Game to continue (see the link at the top of this page).

Lesson 26: Danish Gambit


[*See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[**Learn all Open Game openings: Open Games - One by One]

This lesson is designed for chess beginners to learn Danish Gambit. It includes 2 chess videos (Video 1: Danish Gambit - General Information | Video 2: Danish Gambit - How to Play), the textual part to read, and the .PGN file to download and see Danish Gambit games played in 2007-2009.

The lesson also includes the additional Video: Danish Gambit - Learn This Trap. The link to this video is located below on this page, and it will open in the same window of your browser.

The Danish Gambit lesson is divided into 3 parts:
I. Danish Gambit: Data and Variations
II. Danish Gambit: How to Play Some Variations
III. Danish Gambit: Download the .PGN File to See Real Games


I. Danish Gambit: Data and Variations

Danish Gambit Move Order: 1.e4 e5 2.d4 ed 3. c3
ECO Code: C21 - ECO Code C21 is not only Danish Gambit.

About Danish Gambit:

Danish Gambit was invented by a Danish chess player in the 19th century. It belongs to the Open Game openings. The main feature of Danish Gambit is the following: White offers pawns sacrified to get a quick and overwhelming development...

Danish Gambit is similar to Center Game, but Danish Gambit is a separate chess opening. If to know how, Black can neutralize the White quick development. Because of this, Danish Gambit is not popular at the top-level chess. But for chess beginners, it is very nice opening...

It may a good idea to play Danish Gambit against an unprepared opponent-beginner... You are not recommended to play Danish Gambit as White party against a chess master, if feasible. In this case, you may find later on that the greatest part of your game was only a great beginning...

Danish Gambit Variations:
• Collijn Defense: 1.e4 e5 2.d4 ed 3.c3 dc 4.Bc4 cb 5.Bxb2 Qe7 (C21)
• Schlechter Defense: 1.e4 e5 2.d4 ed 3.c3 dc 4.Bc4 cb 5.Bxb2 d5 (C21)
• Soerensen Defense: 1.e4 e5 2.d4 ed 3.c3 d5 (C21)

To learn Danish Gambit (general information, its variations, and more ) see Video 1: Danish Gambit - General Information. To see this video on Danish Gambit, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video has not shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

You can also see additional video on another page:
Additional Video: Danish Gambit - Learn This Trap.


II. Danish Gambit: How to Play Some Variations

You may learn some variations of Danish Gambit. For this, you may use Video 2: Danish Gambit: How to Play Some Variations; which is below. To see Video 2: Danish Gambit: How to Play.., just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video has not shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.


See in writing the Danish Gambit variations, which were shown in Video 2:

• Danish Gambit, Soerensen Defense:
1.e4 e5 2.d4 exd4 3.c3 d5 4.exd5 Qxd5 5.cxd4 Nc6 6.Nf3 Bg4 7.Be2 Nf6 8.Nc3 Qa5 9.Be3 Bd6 10.0-0 0-0

• Danish Gambit, Schlechter Defense:
1.e4 e5 2.d4 exd4 3.c3 dxc3 4.Bc4 cxb2 5.Bxb2 d5 6.Bxd5 Bb4+ 7.Nc3 Bxc3+ 8.Bxc3 Nf6 9.Qf3 Nxd5 10.exd5 0-0


III. Danish Gambit: Download the .PGN File to See Real Games

Find below the Danish-Gambit.pgn file to download and see how the Danish Gambit opening works in real games at the chess master level. To read the file, you will need a PGN Viewer Program. See Lesson 16, which explains you how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer Program - You need this chess program to open and replay all chess games within a PGN file. Before downloading the Danish-Gambit.pgn file, please read how it was compiled and what you will see within it.

The Danish-Gambit.pgn file was specially created in the following way:

• The file includes main variations and displays how to correctly play some of them.
• In addition, the file includes 16 chess games played in 2007-2009 on Danish Gambit.
• The chess games were selected randomly, all players are FIDE rated 1600-2252.

• All the names of the chess players and their ratings were removed.
• The game results and tournament names were removed as well.
• The chess games are shown from the beginning to the end of opening phase only.

• At this point, the opening positions were analyzed by a computer program.
• You will see the result of the program's analysis, like this...
• "If White finds a best line ..., Black will be still better at 0.52 pawns."

• The computer program's analysis will help you:
• To analyze each chess opening position.
• To understand how to correctly enter the middle game...

To see how Danish Gambit works in real games, click the following link:

Download the Danish-Gambit.pgn File (8 KB)
Note 1. The above file is to be downloaded from Google Drive. First click the above link to open, then click the download icon to download.
Note 2. To read the above PGN File and see the chess games inside it, you will need a PGN Viewer software. See Lesson 16, which explains how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer.

[*.See Inside: Bishop's Opening    King's Gambit]

[*...See Outside: Chess Video Blog]


The next chess opening to learn is Vienna Game.

Danish Gambit - Learn This Trap


[*See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[>>Return to: The Main Page of Danish Gambit]

Danish Gambit: Learn This Trap (Video 3): The video will show a Danish Gambit trap. Learn the trap to know how to use it and how to avoid. To see Video 3 - Danish Gambit: Learn This Trap, just click the Play button below:



• If the opening video has not shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.

You have seen the 2nd video on Danish Gambit trap. Now you are recommended to return to the Main Page of Danish Gambit to continue (see the link at the top of this page).

Lesson 25: Center Game


[*See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[**Learn all Open Game openings: Open Games - One by One]

This lesson is designed for chess beginners to learn Center Game. It includes 2 chess videos (Video 1: Center Game - Main Variations | Video 2: Center Game - How to Play), the textual part to read, and the .PGN file to download and see Center Game games played in the year 2009.

The Center Game lesson is divided into the following 3 parts:
I. Center Game: Data and Variations
II. Center Game: How to Play the Main Lines
III. Center Game: Download the .PGN File to See Real Games


I. Center Game: Data and Variations

Center Game Move Order: 1.e4 e5 2.d4 ed 3.Qxd4
ECO Codes: C21-C22 - ECO Codes C21-C22 is not only Center Game.

About Center Game:

Center Game is an old chess opening. It belongs to the Open Game openings. Center Game breaks the rule "No Queen Out Too Early," and the White Queen is brought out already on the 3rd move. This opening was abandoned, it was revived... Center Game is being played at the master level today. It is an easy chess opening to learn.

Center Game Main Variations:
• The 3.... Nc6 Variation: 1.e4 e5 2.d4 ed 3.Qxd4 Nc6 (C22)
• Paulsen Attack: 1.e4 e5 2.d4 ed 3.Qxd4 Nc6 4.Qe3 (C22)
• Charousek Variation: 1.e4 e5 2.d4 ed 3.Qxd4 Nc6 4.Qe3 Bb4+ 5.c3 Be7 (C22)
• Berger Variation: 1.e4 e5 2.d4 ed 3.Qxd4 Nc6 4.Qe3 Nf6 (C22, most common)

To learn Center Game and its main variations, see Video 1: Center Game - Main Variations by clicking the Play button below:




• If the opening video has not shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.


II. Center Game: How to Play the Main Lines

You may learn the main variations of Center Game. Within Center Game, you should know Berger Variation which is the most common and which goes 1 step down from Paulsen Attack. You should learn not to play 5.e5? for White... For this, use Video 2: Center Game - How to Play; which is below. To see Video 2: Center Game - How to Play, just click the Play button below:




• If the opening video has not shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.


See in writing the Center Game variation, which was shown in Video 2:

• Center Game, Berger Variation:
1.e4 e5 2.d4 exd4 3.Qxd4 Nc6 4.Qe3 Nf6 5.Nc3 Bb4 6.Bd2 0-0 7.0-0-0 Re8 8.Bc4 d6


III. Center Game: Download the .PGN File to See Real Games

Find below the Center-Game.pgn file to download and see how the Center Game opening works in real games at the chess master level. To read the file, you will need a PGN Viewer Program. See Lesson 16, which explains you how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer Program - You need this chess program to open and replay all chess games within a PGN file. Before downloading the Center-Game.pgn file, please read how the file was compiled and what you will see within it.

The Center-Game.pgn file was specially created in the following way:

• The file includes main variations and displays how to correctly play some of them.
• In addition, the file includes 24 chess games played in 2009 on Center Game.
• The chess games were selected randomly, all players are FIDE rated 1689-2489.

• All the names of the chess players and their ratings were removed.
• The game results and tournament names were removed as well.
• The chess games are shown from the beginning to the end of opening phase only.

• At this point, the opening positions were analyzed by a computer program.
• You will see the result of the program's analysis, like this...
• "If White finds a best line ..., White will be better at 0.47 pawns."

• The computer program's analysis will help you:
• To analyze each chess opening position.
• To understand how to correctly enter the middle game...

To see how Center Game works in real games, click the following link:

Download the Center-Game.pgn File (11 KB)
Note 1. The above file is to be downloaded from Google Drive. First click the above link to open, then click the download icon to download.
Note 2. To read the above PGN File and see the chess games inside it, you will need a PGN Viewer software. See Lesson 16, which explains how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer.


[*See Inside: Bishop's Opening    King's Gambit]

[*See Outside: Chess Video Blog]

This completes the lesson on the Center Game chess opening. The next opening to learn is Danish Gambit (see Lesson 26 in the list of all lessons. Find the link to all lessons at the top of this page - thanks you very much for learning chess openings).

Lesson 24: Latvian Gambit


[*See all lessons: Chess Openings for Beginners - All Lessons]

[**Learn all Open Game openings: Open Games - One by One]

This lesson is designed for chess beginners to learn Latvian Gambit. It includes 2 chess videos (Video 1: Latvian Gambit - Main Variations | Video 2: Latvian Gambit - How to Play), the textual part to read, and the .PGN file to download, see and learn real games on Latvian Gambit.

The Latvian Gambit lesson is divided into the next 3 parts:
I. Latvian Gambit: Data and Variations
II. Latvian Gambit: How to Play the Main Lines
III. Latvian Gambit: Download the .PGN File to See Real Games


I. Latvian Gambit: Data and Variations

Latvian Gambit Move Order: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5
ECO Codes: C40 - ECO Code C40 is not only Latvian Gambit

About Latvian Gambit

Latvian Gambit is an attemp to play King's Gambit for Black. It is an Open Game opening. Latvian Gambit is aggressive but risky for Black. Usually, it is not recommended for Black to play Latvian Gambit. There were attempts to prove that the gambit is mistaken. However, Latvian Gambit is still alive...

Some chess players intentionally play it to get both the position complicated and the opponent confused. Sometimes it works... The grandmasters avoid this opening. For White, the best answer in Latvian Gambit is 3.Nxe5! As a rule, the White position is better. Latvian Gambit has 6 main variations...

Latvian Gambit Main Variations:

• Main Line: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5 3.Nxe5 Qf6 4.d4 d6 5.Nc4 fxe4 (C40)
Note: Most common for 70-80% of all the Latvian Gambit Games.
• Leonhardt Variation: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5 3.Nxe5 Qf6 4.Nc4 (C40)
• Fraser Variation: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5 3.Nxe5 Nc6 (C40)

• Svedenborg Variation: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5 3.Bc4 fxe4 4.Nxe5 d5 (C40)
Note: As beginner, you are not recommended to play Svedenborg for Black.
Note: See below the Latvian-Gambit.pgn file: How to Play,"Instead of Svedenborg."
• The 3.exf5 Variation: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5 3.exf5 (C40)
• The 3.d4 Variation: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5 3.d4 (C40)

To learn Latvian Gambit and its main variations, see Video 1: Latvian Gambit - Main Variations by clicking the Play button below:




• If the opening video has not shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.


II. Latvian Gambit: How to Play the Main Lines

You may learn the main variations of Latvian Gambit. To see them, use Video 2: Latvian Gambit - How to Play; which is below. To see Video 2: Latvian Gambit - How to Play, click the Play button below:




• If the opening video has not shown up, please wait a little.
• If the video stops, drag a little right the player's handle.


See in writing the Latvian Gambit variations, which were shown in Video 2:

• Latvian Gambit, Main Line:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5 3.Nxe5 Qf6 4.d4 d6 5.Nc4 fxe4 6.Be2! Qf7 7.Nc3 Bf5 8.0-0 Nf6 9.f3! Ng4

• Latvian Gambit, Leonhardt Variation:
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f5 3.Nxe5! Qf6 4.Nc4 fxe4 5.Nc3 Qg6 6.d3 Bb4 7.Bd2 Bxc3 8.Bxc3 d5 9.Ne5 Qf5 10.dxe4 Qxe4+ 11.Be2 Nf6 12.0-0 c6


III. Latvian Gambit: Download the .PGN File to See Real Games

Below you can find and download the Latvian-Gambit.pgn file to see how Latvian Gambit works in real games at the chess master level. To read the file, you will need a PGN Viewer Program. See Lesson 16, which explains how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer Program - You need this chess program to open and replay all chess games within a PGN file. Before downloading the PGN file, please read how the Latvian-Gambit.pgn file was compiled and what you will see within it.

The Latvian-Gambit.pgn file was specially created in the following way:

• The file includes main variations and displays how to correctly play some of them.
• In addition, the file includes 16 real games played in 2008-2009 on Latvian Gambit.
• The real games were selected randomly, all players are FIDE rated 1691-2462.

• All the names of the chess players and their ratings were removed.
• The game results and tournament names were removed as well.
• The real games are shown from the beginning to the end of opening phase only.

• At this point, the opening positions were analyzed by a computer program.
• You will see the result of the program's analysis, like this...
• "If White finds a best line ..., White will be better at 0.83 pawns."

• The computer program's analysis will help you:
• To analyze each chess opening position.
• To understand how to correctly enter the middle game...

To see how Latvian Gambit works in real games, click the following link:

Download the Latvian-Gambit.pgn File (10 KB)
Note 1. The above file is to be downloaded from Google Drive. First click the above link to open, then click the download icon to download.
Note 2. To read the above PGN File and see the chess games inside it, you will need a PGN Viewer software. See Lesson 16, which explains how to download a decent freeware PGN Viewer.

You can find more on chess by clicking the following link:
Chess Videos Blog (sister chess blog)

This completes the lesson on the Latvian Gambit chess opening. The next opening to learn is Center Game (see Lesson 25 in the list of all lessons. Find the link to all lessons at the top of this page).